Rulings on the expiation paid for not fasting


My grandfather is sick. I give on his behalf ten Dirhams per day from his own money as an expiation for not fasting. I do this sometimes after the Iftaar (sunset meal that concludes the fast), sometimes in the morning, and other times before the Iftaar. Does this free him from liability? Is it enough? What intention should I have when I give this ransom?
All perfect praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah, and that Muhammad  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) is His Slave and Messenger.
If your grandfather is expected to recover from his illness, then this expiation will not free him from liability. Rather, he will be required to make up for the days of fasting whenever he is able. Allah The Exalted Says (what means): {So whoever among you is sick or on a journey [during them] - then an equal number of days [are to be made up].}[Quran 2: 184]
If recovery is not expected, however, then your grandfather is required to give an expiation of feeding a poor person each day. The amount of the ransom is one Mudd [volumetric measure (handful)], equaling 750 grams. It would be better to give half a Saa' (twice that). Giving Dirhams (money) instead of food is impermissible unless there is an outweighing benefit in this. So, the expiation must be food as stated in the verse where Allah The Exalted Says (what means): {And upon those who are able [to fast, but with hardship] – an expiation [as substitute] of feeding a poor person [each day].}[Quran 2: 184]
It is impermissible to give the expiation unless the sick person really does break fasting on that day. Hence, if you give it after the true dawn while your grandfather breaks fasting that day (i.e. did not intend to fast), then it will free him of liability.
Your grandfather must authorize you to give the expiation on his behalf because he is responsible for this act of worship and he will not be free from liability unless he holds an intention to do it. The Messenger of Allah  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) said: “Intentions are what count in deeds.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]
And Allah Knows best.

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