Making up missed days of Fasting

Excuses that exempt a person from Fasting

It is from the mercy of Allah and the easiness of the religion that we are allowed to break the fast if there is any danger, hardship or difficulty in it. Allah Says (what means): {...He has chosen you and has not placed upon you in the religion any difficulty...} [Quran 22:78]
It is allowed for those who are (not chronically) ill and for travelers to break their fasts during Ramadan, but they must make up the days they missed. Allah Says (what mean): {[Fasting for] a limited number of days. So whoever among you is ill or on a journey [during them]-then an equal number of days [are to be made up]...} [Quran 2:184]
Muath  may  Allah  be  pleased  with  him said: "Verily, Allah made the fast obligatory upon the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) by revealing the following verse. Allah Says (what means): {O you who believed, decreed upon you is fasting as it was decreed upon those before you ... [Quran 2:183] {And upon those who are able [to fast, but with hardship] - a ransom [as subtitute] of feeding a poor person [each day]} [Quran 2:184] At that time, whoever wished to do so would fast and whoever wished not to do so would feed a poor person, and that was sufficient for them. After that again Allah Says (what means): {The month of Ramadan [is that] in which was revealed the Quran, a guidance for the people and clear proofs of guidance and criterion. So whoever sights [the new moon of] the month, let him fast it; and whoever is ill or on a journey - then an equal number of other days} [Quran 2:184] By this verse, fasting was established for those who were resident and healthy. A concession was made for the traveler and the sick, and the feeding of the poor by the elderly who could not fast was [left] confirmed." [Imam Ahmad, Imam Abu Dawood and Imam Al-Bayhaqi]
If fasting during travel is not difficult, then it is better to fast. If fasting would be difficult then breaking the fast is better. Abu Sa'eed Al-Khudri  may  Allah  be  pleased  with  him said: "we used to travel for war expeditions with the Messenger of Allah  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) during Ramadan. Some of us would fast and some of us would not fast, and the fasting person would not find fault with the one who was not fasting, and the person who was not fasting would not find fault with the person who was fasting. Then they thought that the person who had the strength would fast and that was better. And they thought that the person who felt weak would not fast and that was better." [Imam Muslim]
If the person is ill during Ramadan, and is able to fast without difficulty, then he fasts. If he is unable then he breaks his fast.
If the ill person expects to recuperate from his illness, he waits until he recuperates and then he makes up for whatever days he did not fast. However, if he is not expected to recover, he breaks his fast and gives charity for each day that he does not fast. Allah Says (what means): {...And upon those who are able [to fast, but with hardship]-a ransom [as substitute] of feeding a poor person [each day]... } [Quran 2:184]
As for a person who has reached an old age, at which he doesn't have the strength to fast, he may break the fast and give charity for every day that he did not fast. Ibn 'Abbas  may  Allah  be  pleased  with  him said: "It was permitted for the very elderly man (or woman) to feed a poor person for every day (that he did not fast), and he did not have to make up for the days." [Ad-Daraqutni and Al-Hakim]
Breaking the Fast without a legitimate excuse
Regarding the one who intentionally breaks the fast by having sexual intercourse with his wife during the daytime in Ramadan, then he has committed a serious sin and violated the sacredness of this month, and must make up the fast for that day. In addition, he should also pay heavy atonement for his grave mistake. He is required to free a slave if it is possible to do so, if not, he has to fast two consecutive months and if he is unable to do so, then he has to feed sixty poor and needy people. The same is required of the wife as is required of her husband, if she freely consented (to having sexual intercourse). However, if she was forced, then nothing is required of her according to the predominant opinion of the scholars  may  Allah  have  mercy  upon  them.
If one intentionally breaks his fast by eating or drinking without a legitimate excuse, then he has committed a serious sin and dishonored the sacred month of Ramadan. Such a person has a severe threat awaiting him. Prophet Muhammad  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) said: Whoever breaks fasting of Ramadan without having a legitimate excuse or being ill, he cannot make up for that day, even if he undertakes a perpetual fast.” [Imam Al-Bukhari] Imams Ahmad, Ash-Shafiee Saeed Ibn Al-Musayyib and Al-Sha'bi and others  may  Allah  have  mercy  upon  them declared that one should sincerely repent and seek the forgiveness of Almighty Allah and make up the day later.
On the other hand, a group of Muslim scholars believe that expiation is required for breaking the fast of any day of Ramadan without a legal reason. They say, one should fast for two months consecutively or feed sixty poor people as well as to make up the day later with any of both forms of expiation.
If someone vomited deliberately, then it should invalidate his fasting, and necessitates making up for the fast. However, If vomit overcomes one and exits without one’s choosing, the fast is not nullified.

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